Is there a way to read the ADC raw data?

I would like to know if there’s a way to read directly the ADC data at the receiver of the DW1000. Like some sort of register?
Somehow the pulse and the polarity of the pulses must be converted from analogue to digital and I can’t understand from the datasheet how this happen

Have you seen the DW1000 API software and documentation - here

The dwt_readtempvbat() API might be what you need.

That reads the temperature and voltage. I would like to know the bit coming from the decoder at the receiver.

Somehow at the receiver, the demodulator must understand when the preamble is received and translate the bursts in bits given the phase. I would like to know those bits

No, this is not supported/exposed to the user.