Hi,
I came across a dataset and am trying to interpret how they calculated the range using all of this data. And, if calculating the range does not require me to use any of the other numbers, what is the purpose of finding these numbers and what does it inform me about the distance?

There isn’t enough information there to calculate range.

None of the fields there are needed to calculate range.

In order to calculate range you need the RX and TX timestamps which aren’t included in the data.
What you have there is a data set for measuring the quality of the received signal, those numbers allow you to calculate signal strength and determine the quality of the signal, whether it was in a good environment or somewhere with lots of reflections or obstructions. Handy for development and diagnosis but not required for range measurements.