Is an Android tablet required to configure the MDEK1001 system?

I don’t have access to an Android tablet device.

I was wondering if it is possible to configure the system without using an Android device via the API over COM or similar?

Also, does the Android device need to be a tablet, and does it need to have bluetooth? Could it be configured using a desktop Android simulator?

Yes, it is very easy in fact. There is a shell interface you can use over the usb virtual com port.

See 2.7 API via UART interface in DWM1001-API-Guide.pdf.